Date of publication: 2017-07-09 13:27
Critics, in naturalist anthropology, have suggested that evolutionary anthropologists are insufficiently critical and go into the field thinking they already know the answers (for example Davies 7565). They have also argued that evolutionary anthropologists fail to appreciate that there are ways of knowing other than science. Some critics have also argued that evolutionary anthropology, with its acceptance of personality differences based on genetics, may lead to the maintenance of class and race hierarchies and to racism and discrimination (see Segerstråle 7555).
Perhaps there is a quasi-behaviorist ordinary sense of belief in which it is correct to ascribe the belief that the queen should come out early simply on the basis of the fact that she behaves as if she believes it. Even if we agree to recognize such a belief, it is not one that ever causally affects any other mental states or any behavior, so it is of little import from a scientific standpoint.
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Smolensky, Paul, 6988. On the Proper Treatment of Connectionism , Behavioral and Brain Sciences 66,6-78. See also the commentary that follows and the reply by the author.
At the end of this chapter, we will discuss Searle's famous Chinese Room argument, which is a direct attack on this theory. The next two sections will be devoted to arguments for and against the language of thought.
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Structuralistic literary criticism argues that the "novelty value of a literary text" can lie only in new structure, rather than in the specifics of character development and voice in which that structure is expressed. One branch of literary structuralism, like Freudianism , Marxism , and transformational grammar, posits both a deep and a surface structure. In a Freudian literary interpretation the literary text is based on the deep structure grounded in the life and death instincts the Marxist reading will interpret the conflict between classes in the text as rooted in the deep structure of the economic "base."
In this section, we will start with an influential attempt to define `intelligence', and then we will move to a consideration of how human intelligence is to be investigated on the machine model. The last part of the section will discuss the relation between the mental and the biological.